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Law Enforcement

Does Gender Affect Judges’ Perceptions of Sexual Assault Cases?

Current reported prevalence rates indicate that females commit approximately 4%–5% of all sexual offences worldwide. There is growing recognition that females engage in harmful sexual behavior that is similar in severity and type to males. Specifically, current prevalence rates indicate that females commit approximately 4%–5% of all sexual offences worldwide. Despite evidence that sexual offences committed by females have similar physical psychological impacts on victims (Kaufman, 2010), sexual offending by women is often perceived as less harmful (Denov, 2001).

Intimate Partner Violence, Legal Systems and Barriers for African American Women

While intimate partner violence (IPV) is a problem for individuals from all sociodemographic backgrounds, research suggests that some groups are disproportionately affected. The most comprehensive national prevalence study conducted to date found that four in ten Black women in the United States experience IPV throughout their lifetime (Black et al., 2011).

The Effect of Domestic Violence During Pregnancy on Cortisol Hormone Release, Breastfeeding, and Newborn

This study was conducted to determine the effect of domestic violence during pregnancy on the cortisol hormone release, preterm birth, low birth weight, and breastfeeding status. The cross-sectional study was conducted with 255 pregnant women in a Family Health Centre in the Southeastern Anatolia Region of Turkey between October 2017 and August 2018. The questionnaire, DVWDS (Domestic Violence to Women Determination Scale) and Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale were used to collect the data. 

Implicit Racial and Gender Bias About Handguns: A New Implicit Association Test

Firearm-related deaths in the United States in 2020 were around double among Black women and men (6.6 and 56.0 per100,000 people, respectively) than among other racial groups including American Indian or Alaska native women and men (3.4; 20.2), Asian or Pacific Islander women and men (0.9; 5.3), and White women and men (3.5; 20.0; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, 2021). These large and persistent racial disparities in firearm-related deaths demonstrate the need to confront firearm-related harm for both public health and health equity.

Risk Management in Stalking Victims: A Multi-Agency Approach to Victim Advocacy

There has been a vigorous push for action internationally to address the needs of stalking victims in the UK in recent decades. The Crime Survey for England and Wales (CSEW) estimated that there are over one million self-reported victims of stalking each year (Office of National Statistics, 2017). In contrast, a separate research study (Suzy Lamplugh Trust, 2019)  data revealed that police forces in England and Wales recorded only 8,364 cases of stalking in 2017.

“Just Bring Us the Real Ones”: The Role of Forensic Crime Laboratories in Guarding the Gateway to Justice for Sexual Assault Victims

Most sexual assaults are never prosecuted, as less than 10% of cases reported to the police end in a conviction or guilty plea (see Lonsway & Archambault, 2012; Shaw & Lee, 2019 for reviews). The most precipitous drop-off in case progression occurs quite early in the process, as law enforcement personnel clear most cases without a referral to prosecutors for consideration of charges (Bouffard, 2000; Campbell, 2008; Pattavina et al., 2016; Spohn et al., 2014). Kerstetter (1990) argued that these actions by the police “form the gateway to the criminal justice system” (p.

Disclosure of Sexual Assault Among Sexual and Gender Minorities: A Systematic Literature Review

Sexual assault is common in sexual and gender minority (SGM) individuals.  While rates of assault are believed to be high, few studies have examined SGM victims’ disclosure experiences. While less studied, there is an increasing body of literature documenting that trans and other gender diverse (TGD) individuals have especially high rates of sexual assault victimization. For example, research suggests that 43–50% of TGD individuals report experiencing a sexual  assault (Clements-Nolle et al., 2006; Risser et al., 2005 Stotzer, 2009).

Sex Offenses Perpetrated Against Older Adults: A Multivariate Analysis of Crime Scene Behaviors

The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between crime scene behaviors and background characteristics of offenders who commit sexual offenses against female victims aged 60 years or more. Research and understanding of offense behaviors in this area is extremely limited; therefore, the study sought to provide a preliminary understanding and multivariate model of offense behaviors in cases where older female adults were sexually abused.

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